Barclays Bank in the U.K. will begin using a finger vein scanner to identify its customers. The move comes after a wave of hacks on financial institutions that have demonstrated how feeble password and PIN protections have become.
The bank will send the small portable device to its customers who want to do their banking online. It will function as a form of two-factor identification. Users will punch in their pass word or account details, and then be required to confirm their identities by sticking their fingers into the scanner, a separate device from their computer.
Barclays customers have already been using a separate portable device, the PINsentry, the access their accounts online. Users log in, then insert their debit cards into the PINsentry to retrieve another code number, and can only proceed with transactions once the web site is satisfied that the user, the card and the PINsentry code all came from the owner of the account.
Here is a PINsentry:
The vein scanner will be even more secure, Barclays says: “The compact device can read and verify the users’ unique vein patterns in the finger. Unlike finger prints, vein patterns are extremely difficult to spoof or replicate. Barclays will not hold the user’s vein pattern and there will be no public record of it.”
Here is a closeup:
Barclays finger vein scanner
The device will require users to make sure they don’t lose any of their fingers, the Guardian noted:
Customers will first have to register a finger – Barclays is recommending the index finger, plus a back-up digit should you be careless enough to lose or damage the first choice. The unique vein pattern in the finger will then be held on a sim card that is added to the reader. Barclays itself will not store the data.
The device then scans the unique pattern of veins inside your finger to confirm that it’s actually you:
Japan, Turkey, Russia and Poland already have banks using vein scanners to confirm IDs, the Financial Times says.
What is fish farming?
- Fish farming is the raising of fish for personal use or profit. It is sometimes called fish culture.
Why do we raise fish?
- By raising fish we make better use of our land and our water.
- By raising fish your family will have more to eat. The protein in fish will keep your family strong and healthy. Fish are tasty, like chicken, sheep and goat.
- If your family is not too big you will have more fish than you need for food and you can sell them at the market.
- If your family is not too big with more food and more money you and your family can live better.
- But fish farming is not easy. To raise fish is as hard work as to raise anything else, such as maize, rice, cassava or groundnuts.
- You will need to learn to do many things.
What do you need to raise fish?
- You will need a piece of land where you can build a pond,
a supply of water,
baby fish to begin,
food for your fish.
- You will need time to build a pond and to care for it regularly. Fish farming takes a lot of time.
How do we begin?
- If there is a fish culture station near where you live you may be able to get help from an extension agent.
- If there is no extension agent you will need to learn many things by yourself.
- You will need to know the type of soil best for your pond, how to dig your pond,
how to fill it with water,
how to fertilize it.
- You will need to know what kind of fish to raise.
Local name: Three-spotted bream
how to put the baby fish into your pond,
what to feed your fish, how to feed them.
- You will need to know how to take care of the pond,
how to drain it,
how to harvest the fish,
how to use your own baby fish to start again.
- This book will help you to begin good fish farming.
Where to put your fish pond
- You must choose a good place to put your pond.
- Remember that a pond for fish is only one use for your land. Be careful not to build a pond on land that could be better used for something else.
- It is best to choose a piece of land that has a gentle slope.
- Do not build your pond on a steep hill or where it can be flooded in the rainy season.
- Choose a sunny place for your pond, close to your home so people will not come and take your fish away.
Near your home it is also easier to take care of the fish.
- The pond should be near water such as a stream or a spring, or in marshy ground where the water in the soil will fill up your pond.
- The soil in the place you choose must be good for a fish pond.
- To test if you have good soil, take a handful of soil from the surface and squeeze it into a ball.
- Throw the ball of soil into the air and catch it.
- If it sticks together it is good soil and will hold water well.
- Bad soil with sand or gravel in it will not stick together and will not hold water.
- Your pond must be near a good supply of water such as a spring, stream, lake or reservoir with plenty of water all year round.
- You must be sure that you have enough water to fill your pond when it is time to fill it and to add more water when you need it.
- Do not depend on rain-water to fill your pond. When it does not rain, there may not be enough water to keep your pond full and the fish may die.
- Your water must come from a place that is higher than the pond so that the water will flow into the pond by itself.
The water should not have a bad smell, taste or colour. It should not be too muddy.
- The water should not have wild fish in it. You do not want wild fish in your pond because they may eat your fish or keep them from growing.
- Water from a natural spring close to the pond site is usually good and there will not be wild fish in it.
- Water from a stream or from a lake or reservoir is usually good but it may have wild fish in it. You will have to be careful that the wild fish do not swim into your pond.
- It is best to put a pond in a place with a slope or on a hillside because you will not have to dig as much soil to build it. A pond built on a slope is also easier to drain.
- Do not build your pond in a place that is so low that it is flooded during the rainy season.
- The soil where you build your pond should not be too sandy. Soil with too much sand or gravel in it will not hold water.
- In sandy soil the water will sink into the ground and there will not be enough water for your fish.
- If the banks of your pond are built of sandy soil, they will not be strong enough to keep the water from flowing away.
- The soil where you build your pond should have enough clay in it. Clay soil holds water very well.
- In clay soil, very little water will sink into the ground, and banks of clay will be strong enough to hold the water in the pond.
- You should test the soil to see if it is good for building a pond.
- The first test is easy. Take a handful of soil from the surface and squeeze it into a ball.
- Throw the ball of soil into the air and catch it.
- Bad soil with too much sand or gravel in it will not stick together and the ball will fall apart.
- If the ball sticks together well, the soil may be good but you cannot be sure. Now you should make a second test to be sure that the soil is good.
- Dig a hole as deep as your waist.
Early in the morning fill it with water. Fill it to the top.
How large should your pond be?
- It is good to start with a pond big enough to feed your family.
- For example, if you build a pond 20 by 25 metres, the pond will measure about 500 square metres.
20m × 25m = 500m2
- A square or rectangular pond is easier to build.
but your pond can have a different shape to fit the size and shape of your land.
How to build a pond
- There is much more work to do when you build a big pond than when you build a small pond.
- First mark out a big rectangle on the site you have chosen, about 26 by 31 metres. Mark the corners with pegs and run a string between the pegs to show you where the outside of the banks will be.
- Clear the big rectangle of all trees, bushes and grass and take away all the big roots you can.
- Take away about 20 centimetres of topsoil from all over the square. Put the topsoil aside. Later you will put it back on the top and outer sides of the banks.
- Then mark out a small rectangle inside the big rectangle about 20 by 25 metres. Mark the corners with pegs and run a string between the pegs to show you where the inside of the banks will be.
- The bottom of the bank in the shallow part of your pond and along the sides should be about 1 metre from the upper end and sides of the small rectangle
- The bottom of the bank in the deepest part of your pond should be about 2 metres from the lower end of the small rectangle
- Now mark out a third smaller area in the centre of your pond, about 18 by 22 metres. We will call this the central area. Mark the corners with pegs and run a string between the pegs to show where the bottom of the banks will be.
- Be sure that all the pegs and strings 26×31 metre rectangle 20×25 metre rectangle and the central area are set up in the way shown in the drawings.
- Now you are ready to begin digging out soil from inside the central area to build the banks of your pond.
- Ask your neighbours to help you to dig your big pond. Then you can help them in turn to dig their ponds.
- Shared work is lighter work. When we work together with our neighbours, the work is easier and better.
- Begin digging at the 1-metre string marking the central area at the upper end of your pond. Dig about 20 centimetres deep. As you dig toward the lower end, dig a little deeper. When you get to the deepest part, at the 2-metre string marking the central area, you should be digging about 30 centimetres deep.
- As you dig out the soil, put it between the 20 by 25 metre rectangle and the 26 by 31 metre rectangle where the banks will be. Put it nearest to where you are digging. This way, the banks will be higher and wider as you move toward the lower end.
- When you come to roots, take away as much of them as you can.
- Whenever the loose soil you put on the banks reaches half as high as your knees, pack it down tightly. You can do this by beating the soil with a heavy plank, a length of tree trunk or an earth tamper.
- When you are digging, keep the slope of the pond bottom as regular as you can. It should slope gently down from the upper end to the deepest part. The bottom of the pond should have slopes like those in the drawings.
- Begin again to dig soil out of the central area. Dig 20 more centimetres from the upper end and 30 more centimetres from the deepest part. Put the soil on the banks and pack it down tightly as before.
- Now begin again, for the third and last time, to dig soil out of the central area. Dig 20 more centimetres from the upper end and 30 more centimetres from the deepest part. Put the soil on the banks and pack it down tightly.
- When you have finished digging out the central area and you have put on the banks all the soil that you have taken out, you will have a hole 18 by 22 metres with straight sides. Now it is time to shape the banks.
- Dig the soil away from the edges of the central area to form the slope of the banks. Put this soil on top of the banks and pack it down tightly.
- The inside of the banks should slope less steeply than the outside. The drawing shows you what the banks should look like when they are finished.
- The top of the banks should be about 1.5 metres wide and should be straight and flat all the way around the pond.
- Put the 20 centimetres of topsoil you took away when you began digging on the top and outer sides of the banks. Plant grass on the banks. Banks covered with grass last longer.
- The bottom of your pond should be about 1.10 metres from the top of the banks at the shallow upper end and about 1.40 metres from the top of the banks at the deepest part.
- Be sure that the bottom of the pond is fairly smooth and regular.
- Now dig a ditch in the bottom of the pond from the centre to the lower end. The ditch should be about 50 centimetres wide and about 20 centimetres deep. This ditch will help to drain out all the water when you empty your pond.
- When the ditch is finished, remove all loose soil and other trash from the bottom of the pond.
- Now you are ready to install your inlet, outlet and overflow.
- You will need an inlet to let water into your pond when you want to fill it.
- You should place the inlet at the point nearest to the water supply. Most often this will be at or near the upper end of your pond.
- Your inlet can be made from a piece of heavy bamboo or a pipe of plastic or metal. The inlet pipe should be about 10 centimetres in diameter.
- The inlet pipe should be long enough to reach through the top of the bank from one side to the other. You will need a pipe about 3 metres long to reach through the bank at the upper end of your pond.
- Now dig a gap in the bank where you want the inlet to be. It should be a little above the water-level on the inside of your pond and a little below the level of the water which flows from the source on the outside of your pond.
- Put the inlet pipe in the gap in the bank and rebuild the bank over it.
- You can also make an inlet by cutting a shallow trench through the bank to let the water into the pond.
- If you use a shallow trench to get water into your pond, you can improve it and keep it from washing away by using a trough of roofing metal to line the bottom of the trench.
- You will need an outlet to let water out of your pond when you want to empty it.
- You should place the outlet at the bottom of the bank at the lower end of your pond at the deepest part.
- The outlet can be made from a piece of heavy bamboo or a pipe of plastic or metal. The outlet pipe should be about 10 centimeters in diameter. The bank of your pond is much wider at the lower end than at the upper end, so the outlet pipe will have to be longer than the inlet pipe.
- The outlet pipe should be long enough to reach through the bottom of the bank from one side to the other. You will need a pipe about 6.5 metres long to reach through the bank at the lower end of your pond.
- If you cannot get a pipe that is long enough to go through the bank, you can join shorter pieces of pipe together using straight pieces of pipe like the ones in the drawing.
- If you are using bamboo, you can join short pieces of bamboo together with pieces of smaller bamboo in the centre, but the smaller pieces should be at least 8 to 9 centimetres in diameter. Wrap the bamboo joints with rope and close them with tar to keep water from seeping out.
- Now dig a gap in the bank where you want the outlet to be. It should reach from the deepest part on the inside of the pond through the bank to the outside of the pond.
- If the outlet pipe is below ground level on the outside of the pond, you will have to dig a ditch to take the water away from the outlet.
- Put the outlet pipe in the gap in the bank and rebuild the bank over it.
- If you use an outlet of about 10 centimetres in diameter, it will take about half a day to empty your pond.
- It is easier to place the outlet where you want it to be before you dig out the centre of the pond and build the banks. When you build another pond, you will understand this and you will be able to do it when you are building the banks. But now, when you are building your first pond, you should place the outlet in the way you have just learned in this booklet because it is easier to understand.
A better outlet
- If you use a plastic or metal pipe for the outlet of your pond, you can make it better by putting an upright length of pipe on the end of the outlet using an L or a T piece like the ones in the drawing. Close the T piece with a plug as shown.
- Put the L or T piece and the upright pipe on the end of the outlet outside the pond, but protect it so that it cannot be reached by animals or other people.
- The top of the upright pipe should reach about 3 to 5 centimetres above the water-level of your pond. If the water rises above this level, it will overflow from the upright pipe.
- Tie the upright pipe to a pole which has been pounded into the ground so that it will not slip down and let the water out of the pond before you want it to.
- When you want to let out the water, untie the upright pipe and push it down. The water will then flow out of the pond.
- There is still another way to let water out of your pond, using a siphon. You will learn how to use a siphon in Items 118–128
- If there is too much water in your pond, some of the water may flow over the banks. This may wash the banks away and some of your fish may get out.
- You can use an overflow to keep the water in your pond from rising over the banks.
- The better outlet you learned about in Items 101–105 will act as an overflow.
- If you use a straight pipe outlet or a siphon to let water out of your pond, you will need another kind of overflow.
- This kind of overflow can be made from a piece of bamboo or a pipe of plastic or metal. The overflow pipe should be about 6 centimetres in diameter.
- The overflow pipe should be long enough to reach through the top of the bank from the inside of the pond to a place far enough on the outside to keep overflow water from washing away the bank. You will need a pipe about 4.5 metres long to do this.
- If you cannot get a pipe that is long enough, join short pieces of pipe or bamboo together. (see Items 94 and 95).
- It is best to place your overflow in the bank at the lower end of your pond right above the outlet so that the water that overflows can run off in the outlet ditch.
- If you are going to put the overflow over the outlet, you can put it in the same gap that you dug for the outlet in Item 96 The water-line should be about 50 centimetres below the top of the bank, so put your overflow there as you rebuild the bank.
- If you are going to put the overflow in another place, you will have to dig another gap in the bank about 50 centimetres deep.
- When the pond is full, the overflow will keep the water about 60 centimetres deep at the shallow upper end and about 90 centimetres deep at the deepest part.
- You can also use a siphon to empty your pond. If you use a siphon, you will not need an outlet but you will need an overflow like the one described in Items 107–117
- A siphon is a simple tube that runs from the inside of the pond over the bank and lies on the ground outside the pond.
- A siphon can be made of plastic or rubber tubing at least 3 centimetres in diameter.
- The siphon must be long enough to reach from the deepest part of the pond, run over the top of the bank and down the outside of the bank. You will need a siphon about 8 metres long to reach over the top of the bank from the deep part to the outside.
- When you are ready to empty your pond, put all of the siphon into the pond. It will fill with water. Be sure the tube is full of water from one end to the other. If the siphon is not full of water, it will not work.
- While the siphon is still in the water, close one end of the tube with a plug and leave the other end open.
- Leave the open end of the siphon below the surface of the water. You can use stones to hold the siphon under the water, but be sure that they are not so heavy that the water will be shut off.
- Take the other end of the siphon, which is closed with the plug, over the top of the bank and put it on the ground outside the pond.
If the ground on the outside of the pond is higher than the pond bottom at the deepest part, you will have to dig a ditch so that the end of the siphon on the outside of the pond will be lower than the end of the siphon in the pond.
The ditch will also take the water away when you empty your pond.
- Now, take the plug out of the siphon. If the end on the outside is lower than the end in the pond and if the end in the pond is under water, water will start to flow through the tube and out of your pond.
- If the end of the siphon in the pond comes to the surface, the water may stop flowing. If this happens, put the siphon into the pond to fill it with water and begin again.
- It will take a lot more time to empty a pond with a siphon than with an outlet. If you use a siphon of about 3 centimetres in diameter, it will take about three days to empty your pond.
- Your inlet should have a screen to keep out wild fish, dirt and trash when you fill the pond.
- If you fill your pond with an inlet trench, it should have a screen, too.
- A siphon, which is very small, usually does not have a screen.
- Your outlet should have a screen to keep your fish from getting away when you empty your pond.
- Your overflow should have a screen to keep your fish from getting away when the pond is too full and the water begins to overflow.
- You can easily make screens for your inlet, outlet and overflow from fine-mesh plastic or metal or from a tin with holes in the end.
- Screens should be placed outside the pond on the inlet pipe and inside the pond on the outlet and overflow pipes.
- This will keep the pipes from filling with trash which could stop the flow of water.
- Lash the screens tightly in place on the pipes, using heavy cord or light wire.
- If you fill your pond by cutting a trench through the bank, you can screen the opening using a fish trap, split and woven bamboo, a clay pot with holes in the bottom or a piece of metal roofing with holes.
- When you are filling or emptying your pond, clean the screens often. If you do not do this, dirt and leaves will cover them up and the water will not flow.
- This book has told you how to build a bigger pond and how to build it better.
- Now that your new pond is built, you will have to learn more. You will need to learn
- how to fill your pond with water
- how to fertilize your pond
- about the fish you will put into your pond
- how to feed your fish every day
- how to care for your fish
- how to harvest your fish
PREPARING YOUR POND
BEFORE FILLING THE POND
- Before you let the water into your new pond, there are a few things that you must do.
- Make sure that the screens on the inlet, outlet and overflow are in place and tight.
- Make sure that the outlet is tightly closed. To do this, wrap a wood plug with old cloth, put it in the outlet pipe on the outside of the pond and tap it lightly with a hammer so that it will stay in the pipe when the pond fills with water.
- If you have built a better outlet with a T or an L piece
turn it to the upright position.
- Put rocks on the bottom of your pond under the inlet where the water will fall when it begins to come into the pond.
- This will keep the bottom from washing away. It will keep the water from getting too muddy. It will make the water splash when it first comes into the pond and bring air for the fish to breathe.
- Now you are ready to fill your pond.
Filling your pond with water
- Dig a small ditch from the water source to the inlet to bring the water to your pond.
- Let the water run into the pond until it reaches the level of the overflow pipe on the inside of the pond.
- If your inlet pipe is about 10 centimetres in diameter, you will need about half a day to fill your pond.
- When the water reaches the level of the overflow pipe it will be about 60 centimetres deep at the shallow upper part of the pond and about 90 centimetres deep at the deepest part.
- Now you are ready to fertilize the water in your pond.
- Build a crib from bamboo or wood to hold the fertilizer as you did with your first small pond. Build it in one corner in the shallow part of the pond. The drawing below will show you how.
Fertilizing the water in your pond
- You can fertilize the water in your new pond with
- You can fertilize your pond with animal or plant compost
- Items 159 to 169 tell you how to make animal compost. If you do not have animal manure, you can fertilize your pond with compost made with plant material.
- To make compost with plant material make a compost pile using layers of grass, chopped leaves or other plant material mixed with a little topsoil and damp it with water to make it rot faster.
- compost made with animal manure
- compost made with plant material
- animal manure
- plant material.
How to make compost
- Make a compost pile near the pond. Put it in a shady place protected from rain.
- Make your pile in layers. Make the first layer of grass or leaves mixed with a spadeful of topsoil, and damp it with water to make it rot faster.
- Then make a second layer of animal manure mixed with a spadeful of topsoil and some water.
- Use animal manure from sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, chickens or ducks.
- In place of animal manure you can also use cotton seed, spoiled fruit, household garbage, ashes from the fireplace or night soil.
- Then make another layer of grass or leaves, and another of manure, until you have a large pile.
- Keep your compost pile damp by watering it every few days.
- Let the compost pile rot for about a month.
- Take compost from the bottom of the pile, or the old part of the pile, where it is most rotten, to put in your pond.
- Add new layers to your pile every week so that you will always have compost.
- If you have too much compost you can use some to fertilize your land.
Putting fertilizer into the crib
- When you first put fertilizer into your crib, pack it down well and fill the crib to the water line. This will be about 60 centimetres deep in the shallow part of the pond.
- If you are going to use compost, you will need enough to fill your crib at the beginning and later you will need enough compost to add about a bucket each week.
- If you are going to use animal manure, you will need about two buckets to put in your crib at the beginning. Mix the two buckets of animal manure with enough fresh plant material to fill your crib to the water line. Later, you will need enough animal manure to add about a bucket each week.
- If you are going to use plant material or compost made with plant material, you will need enough to fill your crib at the beginning and later you will need enough to keep the crib full to the water line.
When is your pond ready?
- If you fertilize your pond with animal compost or animal manure, the water will start to turn green in two or three days. If you fertilize your pond with plant compost or plant material, it will take one week or longer.
- When the water begins to turn green, you will know that natural food is growing in your pond. It will take about a week to become green enough.
- You can make a simple test to be sure that the water is green enough. Put your arm in the water up to your elbow. If you are just able to see the ends of your fingers, the water is green enough.
TAKING CARE OF YOUR POND
- You must take care of your pond every day when you take food to your fish.
- Be sure the pond is full of water.
- Be sure the screens are in place so that your fish cannot get away.
- Do not let weeds cover more than one quarter of the surface. If there are too many pull them up.
- Cut the weeds and grass on the banks of the pond.
- Be sure the water is not leaking through the banks. If you find leaks stop them up right away with good soil.
- Get rid of birds, frogs, turtles, rats and snakes. They can hurt your fish.
- Here are some more ways to take care of your pond.
- Do not let large animals such as cows, buffalo, horses or donkeys graze on the banks of your pond. They are too heavy and may break the banks down.
- You may let small animals such as goats and sheep graze on the banks.
- Do not use your pond, your pond water source or your water supply ditch for bathing, or washing clothes, dishes or cooking pots.
- Do not plant big trees near your pond. If there are already big trees there, cut any branches that hang over the pond. The water in your pond may not turn green enough if your pond is in the shade.
PUTTING THE FISH INTO YOUR POND
- The first time you stock your pond you will need to find some baby fish.
- You can get them from a fish-culture station
or from another fish farmer.
- If you use Three-spotted bream you will need 25 baby fish for every 10 square metres
- Be careful not to put too many fish in your pond. Stocking a fish pond is like planting a field. If plants are too close together they grow badly. If there there are too many fish in your pond they will grow badly, too, and they will stay small.
- If you want to use a different fish, ask your extension agent for help.
- Before you put the baby fish in the pond, be sure that the water where they are is not hotter or colder than the water in the pond.
- You can find this out by putting one of your hands in the water with the fish and the other in the pond.
- If one is hotter or colder slowly put water from the pond in the water with the fish until they are both the same.
- If you do not do this the fish may die when you put them in the pond.
- Do not pour the fish into the pond. Gently put the container into the water, tip it a little, and let the fish swim out by themselves.
- When you grow fish in your first pond you may get the baby fish from a fish culture station or from another fish farmer.
- If you improve your fish farm and it is bigger than it was before, you will need more baby fish than you did before.
- If you are using Three-spotted bream as you did with your first pond, you will need 25 baby fish for every 10 square metres of pond.
- If your pond is 20 by 25 metres or 500 square metres, you will need 1250 baby fish.
20 × 25 = 500
500 m2 area has 50 × 10m2
50 × 25 = 1250
- Three-spotted bream
- To make sure that you have enough baby fish you must grow your own.
Growing your own baby fish
- Since you will need more baby fish it is easier to grow your own baby fish.
It is easier and cheaper than getting them from a fish culture station or another fish farmer.
- Also, if you are going to improve your fish farm even more by building more ponds it is better to have your own supply of baby fish.
- When you grow your own baby fish, you will be sure to always have enough of them when you need them
- To grow your own baby fish, you will need a nursery pond.
- A nursery pond of about 7 by 7 metres, or about 50 square metres, will be large enough to grow the baby fish you will need.
- A nursery pond can be built just like a big pond but since the nursery pond is smaller the banks need not be as high or as wide.
- You can build your nursery pond with an inlet, outlet and overflow like those you used in your big pond.
- You can also use a shallow trench to let water into your nursery pond and use a siphon to drain the water out but you will still need an overflow to control the water level in the nursery pond.
- You will also need a crib to hold the fertilizer in your nursery pond.
- If you build your nursery pond next to your big pond so that they share a bank, you will only need to build three new banks for it.
- If you grow baby fish near your pond, you will not have to carry them far and they will not be hurt when you are carrying them.
- Fill your nursery pond with water and fertilize it with compost, animal manure or plant material as you did with your big pond. Wait for the water to turn green.
- Now you are ready to put fully grown male and female fish into your nursery pond. A fully grown Three-spotted bream is about 20 centimetres long.
- Be careful to put the right number of male fish and female fish into your nursery pond. The drawing shows you how to see the difference between male fish and female fish.
- If you are using your pond of 10 by 10 metres as a nursery pond and you are using Three-spotted bream you will need to put 20 fully grown male fish and 80 fully grown female fish into the pond.
- If you use a nursery pond of 7 by 7 metres and you are using Three-spotted bream you will need to put 10 fully grown male fish and 40 fully grown female fish into the pond.
Feeding the fish in your nursery pond
- The fully grown fish in your nursery pond will get much of their food from small plants and animals which grow in the green water.
- When the baby fish are born they will be very, very small and at first they will get all of their food from small plants and animals which grow in the green water.
- These plants and animals are so small that they can hardly be seen or they cannot be seen at all. But if the water is green in your nursery pond, you can be sure that they are there.
- So in your nursery pond you must always be very careful that the water stays green so that your baby fish will have enough to eat.
- To keep the water green, do not forget to put a bucket of fertilizer in the crib in your nursery pond each week. If you are using plant compost or plant material, keep the crib filled to the water line.
- To keep the full-grown fish in your nursery pond healthy, you must also feed them other kinds of food.
- When the baby fish begin to grow, they, too, will eat the other kinds of food.
- You can give the fish in your nursery pond many things to eat. But you must be sure that this food is ground or cut very small so that the baby fish can swallow it.
- You can give the fish in your nursery pond termites or finely ground or cut
- The bigger your baby fish grow, the more food they will need. Feed the fish in your nursery pond (7 by 7 metres)
- If you see that the fish do not eat all of their food, give them a little less the next day.
- If you see that the fish eat all of their food very quickly, give them a little more the next day.
- grain mill sweepings
- rice bran
- beer wastes
- cottonseed or groundnut cake.
- 500 grams of food every day during the first month
- 1 000 grams of food every day during the second month
- 1 500 grams of food every day during the next months.
Moving your baby fish
- After about three months, there will be many baby fish of different sizes in your pond. Then you can begin to take baby fish out of your nursery pond to put into your big pond.
- Use baby fish which are 5 centimetres or longer to put into your big pond. If there are many baby fish which are 5 centimetres or longer, choose the biggest ones to put into your big pond.
- The easiest way to take out your baby fish is to use a seine net. If you use a seine net with a mesh size of about 1 centimetre the smaller fish will swim through and you will catch the fish of 5 centimetres or longer. But be sure to put the fully grown fish back in your nursery pond.
- From now on, you can take baby fish out of your nursery pond each month for your own use or to sell.
- Be careful that your nursery pond does not become too full of fish. If there are too many fish, they will not grow well and your baby fish will not be strong and healthy.
- To keep your nursery pond from becoming too full of fish, drain all of the water out of the pond each year and collect all of the fish.
- You can eat the big fish that were in the nursery pond. Item 300 will tell you what to do with the baby fish.
- Wait until the bottom of the nursery pond is dry, then clean and repair the bottom and the banks. Items 311 to 316 will tell you how.
- Now fill the nursery pond with water and fertilize it as you did before. When the water is green, put in the right number of fully grown female fish and male fish. Items 218 to 220 will tell you how many fully grown fish to use.
- In about three months, you will be able to take more baby fish out of your nursery pond.
Carrying your baby fish
- You must be very careful when you carry your baby fish from one place to another. Baby fish can be hurt easily.
- When you take the baby fish out of your nursery pond using a seine net, do not carry them in the seine net. Carry them in a container such as
- When you carry baby fish, you must be careful to
- If you carry your baby fish in plastic bags, carry the bags in a box so that they will not break. Cover the box and the plastic bags with a wet cloth to keep them cool.
- If you see that the baby fish are gasping for air, put some air into the water from time to time by
- a clay pot with a cover
- a bucket with a lid
- a plastic bag.
- use only clean water
- keep the fish out of the sun or cover the container with a wet cloth to keep it cool.
- splashing the water gently with your hand
- forcing air into the water with a bicycle tire pump.
Putting baby fish into your big pond
- When your new big pond is full of water, you have fertilized it and the water has become green enough, you are ready to put in the baby fish.
- You already know that if you use Three-spotted bream in a pond 20 bv 25 metres, you will need 1250 baby fish which are 5 centimetres or longer.
- Put the baby fish gently into your pond.
Feeding your big fish
- You already have learned that the big fish in your pond will get much of their food from small plants and animals which grow in the green water.
- To keep the water green, do not forget to put a bucket of fertilizer in the crib in your pond each week. If you are using plant compost or plant material, keep the crib filled to the water line.
- To make your big fish grow more quickly, you must also feed them other kinds of food. You can feed them
- You can feed your fish once a day. But your fish will eat better and grow faster if you feed them two or three times during the day.
- Prepare all the food for one day’s feeding at the same time and give the fish part of the food at two or three different times during the day.
- Always try to feed your fish at the same times every day.
- The bigger your fish grow, the more food they will need. If your pond has 1250 fish in it, feed them
- It is not easy to know exactly how much food to feed your fish. You must watch them when they eat to learn how much food they need.
- Feed your fish in the shallow part of the pond so that you can see them eat.
- If you see that the fish do not eat all of their food, give them a little less the next day.
- If you see that the fish eat all of their food quickly, give them a little more the next day.
- If you feed your fish at the same place every day, you will see whether the fish are eating well. If you give them too much, the food which is not eaten will stay on the bottom.
- Too much uneaten food on the bottom of the pond will take the air out of the water.
- To make it easier to see if your fish are eating well, mark several places in your pond to feed them.
- Mark each place by making a square or a ring of light wood or bamboo. Drive a pole into the pond bottom and attach the square or ring, as shown in the drawing.
- When you feed the fish, put the food inside the square or ring. You may be able to see any uneaten food on the bottom under the square or ring. If you cannot see the bottom, feel with your hands to find any uneaten food that may be there.
- tender leaves and waste of banana and cassava
- grain mill sweepings
- rice bran
- beer wastes
- cottonseed or groundnut cake
- slaughterhouse wastes
- animal wastes
- kitchen wastes
- spoiled fruit and vegetables
- left-over food
- chopped grass.
- 1250 to 2250 grams of food every day during the first month
- 2250 to 3000 grams of food every day during the second month
- 3000 to 4000 grams of food every day during the third month
- 4000 to 5000 grams of food every day during the fourth month
- 5000 to 6750 grams of food every day during the fifth month
- 6750 to 8750 grams of food every day during the sixth month and until the time that you harvest your fish.
TAKING CARE OF YOUR FISH
- You must take very good care of your fish. Watch them carefully to see that they are healthy and swimming strongly.
- If you find any dead fish floating in your pond, take them out right away and change some of the water in your pond.
- To do this, open the inlet and let in some new clean water. The old water will drain out of the pond at the overflow. Do this for 2 or 3 hours each day for several days until you see that your fish are well.
- If the weather is too hot, if you feed your fish too much, or if you put too much fertilizer into the pond, there may be too little air in the water for your fish to breathe.
- If you see your fish coming to the surface gasping for air, give them less food and do not put any fertilizer into your pond for several weeks.
- Put more air into the water of your pond by changing some of the water for several days, as you did in Item 269.
- When you let new water into the pond, let it in quickly so that it will come with a splash and bring more air into the water. This will help your fish to breathe easily.
- If you see any other things wrong with your fish that you do not understand, stop feeding them and stop putting fertilizer into the pond. Then change some of the water in your pond every day for several days, as you did in Item 269.
- After several days if your fish are still not well, if they are not eating well or gasping for air or are not swimming strongly, ask your extension agent or your fish culture station for help.
Retail “Tribal Print” Crop-Tops
I remember looking out the window of my mother’s car as she drove me home after school. I remember seeing a bumper sticker that read, “I was Indian before it was cool,” on a curiously pristine 1982 black Datsun with the tacky neon decal scribbles on the side. I instantly imagined the driver riding a zoomorphic horse version of his awesome truck. No saddle. Stereotypically ribbon-like Native hair blowing in the wind. The fantasy Native is easy for anyone to imagine.
And despite being a rather naive 14 years old, I had an inkling of the kind of person the sticker referred to. Having grown up closer to a reservation than a college town (i.e., hundreds of miles away from anyone who’d wear a headdress for fun), I knew it had to be an earthy variety of white person almost foreign to me. I’d occasionally see…
View original post 789 more words
When one Illinois middle school cluelessly decided to ban leggings & yoga pants because they were “distracting to the boys”, they probably didn’t have any idea it would be the catalyst to a national conversation about dress codes in school.
I mean, dress codes are like, so un-controversial. Until now.
Now, all sorts of interesting stories are surfacing. Girls wearing the same regulation gym outfits, but the curvier ones are getting dress-coded. Tall girls getting dress-coded for short garments, even though they’re finger-tip length, while short girls seem to not draw the same leg-bearing ire. One girl getting sent home from prom for wearing pants. Another girl was sent home from her homeschool prom because male chaperons said her dress was “causing impure thoughts”…for the teenage boys, of course.
So… Many interesting stories indeed.
The leggings ban irked me immediately for two reasons. The first…
View original post 1,033 more words
The European Court of Justice recently ruled that Google has to remove links to specific articles on (proper) request where the damage to the individual outweighs the public right to know.
It has generated a lot of reaction. Lots of people have done things, or have been accused of doing things, and would prefer that the records of that don’t appear when people do a search for them. If a pedophile or a corrupt politician wants to erase something from their past, then many of us would object. If it is someone who once had a bad debt and long since paid it off, that seems more reasonable. So is there any general principle that would be useful? I think so.
When someone is convicted of a crime, sometimes they are set to prison. When their sentence terminates, they are considered to have suffered enough punishment and are free to live a…
View original post 509 more words
By Tom Cheshire, Technology Correspondent
Millions of eBay users were asked to change their passwords on Wednesday after the site’s security was compromised. Here are some top tips and what to do to tighten up your online security.
Change your password
Even if you haven’t used your eBay account, change your password – especially if you’ve used that password on other sites.
It’s a pain, but it’s worth changing your major passwords – especially anything tied to financial and sensitive personal information – every few months.
Change your password in the browser
When changing your password, don’t do this by following an email prompt.
Instead, go the website directly by pasting its URL into the address bar in your web browser.
More generally, never click on links on emails unless you’re completely sure it’s from a trustworthy source. Even a friend sharing an amusing cat video may have been hacked.
Choose the best possible password
What makes the best password is subject to hard fought debate online.
The most secure passwords are also the hardest to remember, and any password is a trade-off between security and convenience. A long, unintelligible string of alphanumeric and special characters is strongest, but not practical for everyday use.
Instead, use a memorable combination of words – not culled from a famous phrase or book.
If your phrase is anywhere on the web, chances are it’s known to hackers – so ‘itwasthebestoftimesitwastheworstoftimes’ isn’t much better than ‘eBayPassword679’.
Don’t use easily guessable information. Choose a nonsense phrase that you’ll remember, and swap in some numbers and special characters.
Something like ‘InApril1EnjoyThrowingDucks!n1ntoTh3R1ver’ is good, then come up with a variation on that for each site.
Again, don’t use the same passwords across different sites.
Use a password manager
If you do prefer to use a stronger password, but struggle to keep track of them, consider using a password manager.
These collect all your passwords into one place, so that you access all the different passwords with one master password.
Because there’s only one point of failure, that password needs to be very secure – and also very well protected.
KeePass, LastPass, Password Box and Dashlane are all good options.
Consider two-step verification
For your most important online accounts – banking, email and social networking – two-step authentication is a very good way of making yourself more secure.
This means that when you log into an unusual computer, you’ll have to authenticate yourself using your mobile phone or another means of verification. Most major web sites offer this now, and it’s less of a hassle than you think.
Pay attention to iTunes
If you suspect you’ve been hacked, pay close attention to your outgoing finances.
Hackers will often use very small amounts to test the water with stolen financial information.
Pay close attention to iTunes especially – hackers will make tiny purchases worth pennies here, to see if a credit card works. So make sure you check your iTunes statements.
Scan for malware
If hackers have your email address and other personal information, there’s a good chance they can access your personal devices.
Install malware protection from a reputable source and scan your computer.
Everyone hates passwords and, thankfully, they may not be around for much longer.
Many companies are working on software that uses behavioural monitoring – the way you type, click around a website and generally interact – to uniquely identify you.
Others are looking at biometrics – like Apple and Samsung’s fingerprint readers on their smartphones.
Future technology might use facial recognition, or heartbeat pattern detection.
Understanding How Transport Rules Are Applied
Applies to: Exchange Server 2010 SP3, Exchange Server 2010 SP2
Topic Last Modified: 2010-01-25
In Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, transport rules allow you to apply messaging policies to messages in the transport pipeline. Actions such as redirecting a message or adding recipients, rights-protecting messages, and rejecting or silently deleting a message can be taken on messages that match the conditions and none of the exceptions defined in the rule.
Given the scope and potential impact of transport rules on messages, it’s important to understand how transport rules work. To learn more about transport rules, see Understanding Transport Rules. For a comprehensive list of transport rule predicates and actions available on the Hub Transport server and Edge Transport server, see Transport Rule Predicates and Transport Rule Actions.
Looking for management tasks related to managing transport rules? Check out Managing Transport Rules.
Transport Rule Scope
Although the procedures used to create and modify transport rules on each server role are the same, the scope of transport rules on each server role is very different.
Transport rule scope
Hub Transport server role
Edge Transport server role
|Agent||Transport Rules agent||Edge Rules agent|
|Rule storage||Active Directory domain controllers||Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) (local)|
|Rule replication||Active Directory replication||No automated replication between Edge Transport servers|
|Rule scope||Entire Exchange organization||Local to each Edge Transport server|
|Message types||All messages except system messages||All messages|
|Lookup distribution group membership||Yes||No|
|Lookup Active Directory attributes||Yes||No|
|Inspect or modify Information Rights Management (IRM)-protected message content||Yes (requires transport decryption)||No|
Rule Storage and Replication
The transport rules you create on a Hub Transport server are stored in Active Directory and are available after Active Directory replication on all Hub Transport servers in your Exchange 2010 organization. This allows you to apply a consistent set of rules across the entire Exchange organization.
Transport rules created on an Edge Transport server are stored in the local instance of AD LDS. No automated replication of configuration information or transport rules occurs between two Edge Transport servers. You can use distinct sets of transport rules on different Edge Transport servers. For example, if an organization uses a different set of Edge Transport servers for inbound and outbound messages to and from the Internet, different rules can be used on these servers. Rules created on the Edge Transport server apply only to messages that pass through that server. However, if applying the same set of transport rules on all Edge Transport servers is a requirement, you can also clone the Edge Transport server configuration, or export transport rules from one Edge Transport server and import it to other Edge Transport servers. For more details, see Understanding Edge Transport Server Cloned Configuration and Export and Import Transport Rules.
On Edge Transport servers, rules apply to all messages. On Hub Transport servers, rules are applied to messages that meet the following criteria:
- Messages sent by anonymous senders Transport rules are applied to all messages received from anonymous senders. E-mail received from the Internet falls under this category.
- Messages sent between authenticated users Transport rules are applied to the following types of messages sent between authenticated users:
- Interpersonal messages Interpersonal messages that contain a single rich text format (RTF), HTML, or plain text message body or a multipart or alternative set of message bodies.
- Encrypted e-mail messages Messages that are encrypted using S/MIME. Transport rules can access envelope headers contained in encrypted messages and process messages based on predicates that inspect them. Rules with predicates that require inspection of message content, or actions that modify content, can’t be processed.
- Protected messages Messages that are protected by applying an Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) rights policy template. With transport decryption enabled, the Transport Rules agent on a Hub Transport server can access the content of protected messages. Messages must be published using an AD RMS cluster in the same Active Directory forest as the Exchange 2010 server. With transport decryption disabled, the agent can’t access message content and treats the message as an encrypted message.
- Clear-signed messages Messages that have been signed but not encrypted.
- Unified messaging e-mail messages Messages that are created or processed by the Unified Messaging server role, such as voice mail, fax, missed call notifications, and messages created or forwarded by using Microsoft Outlook Voice Access.
- Read reports Reports that are generated in response to read receipt requests by senders. Read reports have a message class of
Transport Rule Replication
Transport rules configured on Hub Transport servers are applied to all messages handled by the Hub Transport servers in the Exchange 2010 organization. When a transport rule is created or an existing transport rule is modified or deleted on one Hub Transport server, the change is replicated to all Active Directory domain controllers in the organization. All the Hub Transport servers in the organization then read the new configuration from the Active Directory servers and apply the new or modified transport rules. By replicating transport rules across the organization, Exchange 2010 enables you to apply a consistent set of rules across the organization.
|Replication of transport rules across an organization depends on Active Directory replication. Replication time between Active Directory domain controllers varies depending on the number of sites in the organization, slow links, and other factors outside the control of Exchange. When you configure transport rules in your organization, make sure that you consider replication delays. For more information about Active Directory replication, see Active Directory Replication Technologies.|
|Each Hub Transport server maintains a recipient cache that’s used to look up recipient and distribution list information. The recipient cache reduces the number of requests that each Hub Transport server must make to an Active Directory domain controller. The recipient cache updates every four hours. You can’t modify the recipient cache update interval. Therefore, changes to transport rule recipients, such as the addition or removal of distribution list members, may not be applied to transport rules until the recipient cache is updated. To force an immediate update of the recipient cache, you must stop and start the Microsoft Exchange Transport service. You must do this for each Hub Transport server where you want to forcibly update the recipient cache.|
|Each time the Hub Transport server retrieves a new transport rule configuration, an event is logged in the Security log in Event Viewer.|
Transport rules configured on Edge Transport servers are applied only to the local server on which the transport rule was created. New transport rules and changes to existing transport rules affect only messages that pass through that specific Edge Transport server. If you have more than one Edge Transport server and you want to apply a consistent set of rules across all Edge Transport servers, you must either manually configure each server or export the transport rules from one server and import them into all other Edge Transport servers.
Order in Which Transport Rules Are Applied
Transport rules are applied in the following order:
- Message scope The first check performed by rules agents is whether a message falls within the scope of the agent. Transport rules aren’t applied to all types of messages.
- Priority For messages that fall within the scope of the rules agent, the agent starts processing rules based on rule priority in ascending order. Rules with lower priority are applied first. Transport rule priority values range from
nis the total number of transport rules. Only enabled rules are applied, regardless of priority. You can change the priority of rules using the Exchange Management Console or the Exchange Management Shell.
- Conditions Transport rule conditions are made up of predicates.
- Rule with no conditions A rule with no predicates and no exceptions is applied to all messages.
- Rule with multiple predicates For a rule’s action to be applied to a message, it must match all of the predicates selected in the rule. For example, if a rule uses the predicates from a member of distribution list, and when the Subject field contains specific words, the message must match both predicates. It must be sent by a member of the distribution list specified, and the message subject must contain the word specified.
- Predicate with multiple values If one predicate allows entering multiple values, the message must match any value specified for that predicate. For example, if an e-mail message has the subject Stock price information, and the
SubjectContainscondition on a transport rule is configured to match the words Contoso and stock, the condition is satisfied because the subject contains at least one of the values of the condition.
- Exceptions A rule isn’t applied to messages that match any of the exceptions defined in the rule. Note, this is exactly opposite of how the rules agent treats predicates. For example, if the exceptions except when the message is from people and except when the message contains specific words are selected, the message fails to match the rule condition if the message is sent from any of the specified senders, or if the message contains any of the specified words.
- Actions Messages that match the rules conditions get all actions specified in the rule applied to them. For example, if the actions prepend the subject with string and Blind carbon copy (Bcc) the message to addresses are selected, both actions are applied to the message. The message will get the specified string prefixed to the message subject, and the recipients specified will be added as Bcc recipients.
|Some actions, such as the Delete the message without notifying anyone action, prevent subsequent rules from being applied to a message.|
Transport Rules and Group Membership
When you define a transport rule using a predicate that expands membership of a distribution group, the resulting list of recipients is cached by the Hub Transport server that applies the rule. This is known as the Expanded Groups Cache and is also used by the Journaling agent for evaluating group membership for journal rules. By default, the Expanded Groups Cache stores group membership for four hours. Recipients returned by the recipient filter of a dynamic distribution group are also stored. The Expanded Groups Cache makes repeated round-trips to Active Directory and the resulting network traffic from resolving group memberships unnecessary.
In Exchange 2010, this interval and other parameters related to the Expanded Groups Cache are configurable. You can lower the cache expiration interval, or disable caching altogether, to ensure group memberships are refreshed more frequently. You must plan for the corresponding increase in load on your Active Directory domain controllers for distribution group expansion queries. You can also clear the cache on a Hub Transport server by restarting the Microsoft Exchange Transport service on that server. You must do this on each Hub Transport server where you want to clear the cache. When creating, testing, and troubleshooting transport rules that use predicates based on distribution group membership, you must also consider the impact of Expanded Groups Cache.
Create a Public Folder Mailbox
Applies to: Exchange Server 2013, Exchange Online
Topic Last Modified: 2013-02-14
Before you can create a public folder, you must first create a public folder mailbox. Public folder mailboxes contain the hierarchy information plus the content for public folders. The first public folder mailbox you create will be the primary hierarchy mailbox, which contains the only writable copy of the hierarchy. Any additional public folder mailboxes you create will be secondary mailboxes, which contain a read-only copy of the hierarchy.
For additional management tasks related to public folders in Exchange 2013, see Public Folder Procedures.
For additional management tasks related to public folders in Exchange Online, see Public Folder Procedures in Exchange Online.
What do you need to know before you begin?
- Estimated time to complete: less than 5 minutes.
- You need to be assigned permissions before you can perform this procedure or procedures. To see what permissions you need, see the “Public folders” entry in the Sharing and Collaboration Permissions topic.
- For information about keyboard shortcuts that may apply to the procedures in this topic, see Keyboard Shortcuts in the Exchange Admin Center.
What do you want to do?
Use the EAC to create a public folder mailbox
- Navigate to Public folders > Public folder mailboxes, and then click Add .
- In Public Folder Mailbox, provide a name for the public folder mailbox.
- Click Save.
Use the Shell to create a public folder mailbox
This example creates the primary public folder mailbox.
New-Mailbox -PublicFolder -Name MasterHierarchy
This example creates a secondary public folder mailbox. The only difference between creating the primary hierarchy mailbox and a secondary hierarchy mailbox is that the primary mailbox is the first one created in the organization. You can create additional public folder mailboxes for load balancing purposes.
New-Mailbox -PublicFolder -Name Istanbul
For detailed syntax and parameter information, see New-Mailbox.
How do you know this worked?
To verify that you have successfully created the primary public folder mailbox, run the following Shell command:
Get-OrganizationConfig | Format-List RootPublicFolderMailbox
The word complacency is often hurled, in a rather scornful manner, at people who are unwilling to be political. It connotes a sense of ease and contentment with the status quo.
It is a rare thing to hear the word complacency used in a purely positive way; there’s always a sense of scolding to it. At best it’s used to convey a person’s satisfaction: “Oh? No one asked you to the prom? I’ve been asked three times,” she said with smiling complacency. More usually, however, it takes on a political tone, as with large bodies of people who are unwilling to protest corruption because it doesn’t touch them: “He preached and argued, but it was impossible to jostle the students from their complacency.
Constant vigilance is the price of safety in operations. The trouble is that people cannot be constantly vigilant. Can you be constantly vigilant? Do you believe your coworker can be constantly vigilant? “That will never happen to me” could be a statement of confidence in one’s abilities. It could also be a step toward complacency. If something abnormal can happen in a job or task, it will eventually happen. One issue with complacency is that things happen when we least expect it.Think about the tasks you perform day after day.
Is it possible you are now performing those tasks without much thought?
One cause of complacency is constant repetition of similar tasks without any abnormal events or bad outcomes. We seldom become complacent with tasks that are performed rarely. Another cause of complacency is the reliability of automated systems that are used for controlling and monitoring operational tasks. As technology evolves and each step in a task is performed by software or hardware, we may not pay as much attention to the steps in the task because the equipment is highly reliable. Over time, we may be lulled into a false sense of security. When the automated system fails, the controller or operator may not be prepared to respond. The worst case scenario is that the person may not know how to respond properly.
Learn from a pipeline controller who was working on a newly installed automated system. The controllers had been admonished to “trust the system.” The problem was the system still had bugs, and could not be trusted. My observations on shift led me to ask one controller how he was doing his job. His reply was an excellent way to combat complacency. He said, “I always expect it to work, but I am never surprised when it does not.”
Fatigue also contributes to complacency, because fatigue leads to passiveness and a desire to ignore people and other stimuli. We don’t want to be bothered.
Doesn’t it seem as if fatigue has a number of negative consequences?
What are some effects of complacency? Do any of these ever happen with you? What can you do to avoid them?
- Inattention or letting your mind wander.
- Taking shortcuts and omitting steps.
- Getting in a hurry.
- Thinking that everything will work perfectly.
- Working too long without a break.
- Thinking that safety is someone else’s job.
- Performing a task without procedures or required equipment.
- What happens in our brains that lead to complacency?
First, we have a mental bias that allows our past experiences to guide present expectations. Therefore, we don’t use our brains fully in the situation since our present circumstances
normally match our past circumstances. We devote our brains to more interesting parts of a task, or to a more interesting task. Do not let complacency lead to chaos or catastrophe in your job, or your life. It is difficult to overcome complacency. Use these safety valves and teach them to others.
Always practice simple risk assessment (ask these
1. Why am I doing this task?
2. What could go wrong?
3. How likely is it to happen?
4. What effect can it have on others or me?
5. What can I do about it?
- Use STAR with every task.
- Practice independent verification.
- Follow all policies and procedures.
- Train continually and review often.
- Create mental challenges for yourself.
- Sustain a questioning attitude.